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Home > Medications (Drugs) > Escitalopram > Interactions with Escitalopram

Interactions with Escitalopram

If you are currently being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use Escitalopram without reading these interactions.

Ranolazine

Coadministration with paroxetine, a potent inhibitor of CYP450 2D6, may slightly increase the plasma concentrations of ranolazine, which is metabolized by the isoenzyme secondary to CYP450 3A4. In healthy volunteers, paroxetine (20 mg once a day) increased average steady-state plasma concentrations of ranolazine (1000 mg twice a day) by 1.2-fold. No dosage adjustment of ranolazine is required when used in combination with paroxetine or other CYP450 2D6 inhibitors.

Apomorphine

GENERALLY AVOID: Central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects may be additively or synergistically increased in patients using apomorphine in combination with other drugs that can also cause these effects. Apomorphine alone has been frequently associated with somnolence and dizziness. Patients may suddenly fall asleep during activities of daily living.

MANAGEMENT: The use of other sedating drugs should generally be avoided during apomorphine treatment. Patients prescribed these agents concurrently should be monitored for potentially excessive or prolonged CNS depression, especially if they are elderly or debilitated. Ambulatory patients should be made aware of the possibility of additive CNS effects (e.g., drowsiness, dizziness, lightheadedness, confusion) and counseled to avoid activities requiring mental alertness until they know how these agents affect them. If patients experience increased episodes of falling asleep during normal daily activities, they should avoid driving and other potentially hazardous activities until they have contacted their physician.

Rasagiline

GENERALLY AVOID: Rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor, may potentiate the pharmacologic activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and increase the risk of serotonin syndrome, which is a rare but serious and potentially fatal condition thought to result from hyperstimulation of brainstem 5HT1A receptors and characterized by symptoms such as CNS irritability, altered consciousness, confusion, myoclonus, ataxia, abdominal cramping, hyperpyrexia, shivering, pupillary dilation, diaphoresis, hypertension, and tachycardia. The mechanism is an additive pharmacodynamic effect resulting from MAOI inhibition of serotonin metabolism.

MANAGEMENT: In general, SSRIs should not be used concurrently with MAOIs or other agents that possess MAOI activity. At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of rasagiline therapy and initiation of treatment with SSRIs, and vice versa.

Lisdexamfetamine

GENERALLY AVOID: Several case reports suggest that patients treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) may exhibit an increased sensitivity to sympathomimetic agents. The mechanism of interaction is unclear. The reaction has been reported when fluoxetine was used concomitantly with phentermine, amphetamine, or phenylpropanolamine. Additionally, some sympathomimetic agents (e.g., amphetamines) may possess serotonergic activity and should generally not be administered with SRIs because of the additive risk of serotonin syndrome, which is a rare but serious and potentially fatal condition thought to result from hyperstimulation of brainstem 5-HT1A receptors. The interaction occurred in a patient treated with dexamphetamine approximately 2 weeks after the addition of venlafaxine. The medications were discontinued and the patient was given cyproheptadine for suspected serotonin syndrome, whereupon symptoms promptly resolved. A second episode occurred when dexamphetamine was subsequently resumed and citalopram added. The patient improved following cessation of citalopram on his own, and residual symptoms were successfully treated with cyproheptadine.

MANAGEMENT: In general, amphetamines and other sympathomimetic appetite suppressants should not be combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Close monitoring for enhanced sympathomimetic effects is recommended if these agents must be used together. Patients should also be monitored for signs and symptoms of excessive serotonergic activity such as CNS irritability, altered consciousness, confusion, myoclonus, ataxia, abdominal cramping, hyperpyrexia, shivering, pupillary dilation, diaphoresis, hypertension, and tachycardia.

Eszopiclone, Ziconotide, Pregabalin, Rotigotine (transdermal), Paliperidone

MONITOR: Central nervous system- and/or respiratory-depressant effects may be additively or synergistically increased in patients taking multiple drugs that cause these effects, especially in elderly or debilitated patients.

MANAGEMENT: During concomitant use of these drugs, patients should be monitored for potentially excessive or prolonged CNS and respiratory depression. Ambulatory patients should be counseled to avoid hazardous activities requiring complete mental alertness and motor coordination until they know how these agents affect them, and to notify their physician if they experience excessive or prolonged CNS effects that interfere with their normal activities.

Eletriptan, Duloxetine

MONITOR CLOSELY: Concomitant use of agents with serotonergic activity such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, 5-HT1 receptor agonists, ergot alkaloids, lithium, St. John's wort, phenylpiperidine opioids, dextromethorphan, and 5-hydroxytryptophan may potentiate the risk of serotonin syndrome, which is a rare but serious and potentially fatal condition thought to result from hyperstimulation of brainstem 5-HT1A receptors.

MANAGEMENT: In general, the concomitant use of multiple serotonergic agents should be avoided if possible, or otherwise approached with caution if potential benefit is deemed to outweigh the risk. Close monitoring is recommended for signs and symptoms of excessive serotonergic activity such as CNS irritability, altered consciousness, confusion, myoclonus, ataxia, abdominal cramping, hyperpyrexia, shivering, pupillary dilation, diaphoresis, hypertension, and tachycardia. Particular caution is advised when increasing the dosages of these agents. The potential risk of serotonin syndrome should be considered even when administering one serotonergic agent following discontinuation of another, as some agents may demonstrate a prolonged elimination half-life. For example, a 5-week washout period is recommended following use of fluoxetine before administering another serotonergic agent.

Aripiprazole

MONITOR: Coadministration with drugs that are inhibitors of CYP450 2D6 and/or 3A4 may increase the plasma concentrations of aripiprazole, which is metabolized by these isoenzymes. According to the manufacturer, ketoconazole (200 mg/day for 14 days), a potent CYP450 3A4 inhibitor, increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of aripiprazole (15 mg single dose) and its active metabolite, dehydro-aripiprazole, by 63% and 77%, respectively. Quinidine (166 mg/day for 13 days), a potent CYP450 2D6 inhibitor, increased the AUC of aripiprazole (10 mg single dose) by 112% but decreased the AUC of dehydro-aripiprazole by 35%.

MANAGEMENT: Pharmacologic response to aripiprazole should be monitored more closely whenever a CYP450 2D6 and/or 3A4 inhibitor is added to or withdrawn from therapy, and the aripiprazole dosage adjusted as necessary. The manufacturer recommends that aripiprazole dosage be reduced to one-half the normal dosage during concomitant administration with ketoconazole or quinidine, and additional dosage adjustments be based on clinical evaluation. No dosage recommendations are available for concomitant administration with less potent CYP450 2D6 or 3A4 inhibitors.

Darifenacin

MONITOR: Coadministration with inhibitors of CYP450 2D6 and/or 3A4 may increase the plasma concentrations of darifenacin, which is a substrate of these isoenzymes. According to the product labeling, coadministration of darifenacin (30 mg once daily) with the mixed CYP450 inhibitor cimetidine resulted in a 42% increase in the mean darifenacin steady-state peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and a 34% increase in the systemic exposure (AUC) compared to administration of darifenacin alone. The potent CYP450 2D6 inhibitor paroxetine (20 mg) increased steady-state AUC of darifenacin (30 mg once daily) by 33%. Erythromycin, a CYP450 3A4 inhibitor, increased the mean steady-state Cmax and AUC of darifenacin (30 mg once daily) by 128% and 95%, respectively. Fluconazole, another 3A4 inhibitor, increased these values by 88% and 84%, respectively.

MANAGEMENT: Pharmacologic response to darifenacin should be monitored more closely whenever a CYP450 2D6 and/or 3A4 inhibitor is added to or withdrawn from therapy, and the darifenacin dosage adjusted if necessary. Patients should be advised to contact their physician if they experience undue adverse effects of darifenacin such as severe abdominal pain or constipation for 3 or more days.

Ibritumomab, Desirudin, Iloprost, Dasatinib

MONITOR: Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) may potentiate the risk of bleeding in patients treated with agents that affect hemostasis such as anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, thrombin inhibitors, thrombolytic agents, or agents that commonly cause thrombocytopenia. The tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine, is also a strong SRI and may interact similarly. Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis, thus SRIs may alter platelet function and induce bleeding. Published case reports have documented the occurrence of bleeding episodes in patients treated with psychotropic agents that interfere with serotonin reuptake. Additional epidemiological studies have confirmed the association between use of these agents and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and concurrent use of NSAIDs or aspirin was found to potentiate the risk. Preliminary data also suggest that there may be a pharmacodynamic interaction between SSRIs and oral anticoagulants that can cause an increased bleeding diathesis. Concomitant administration of paroxetine and warfarin, specifically, has been associated with an increased frequency of bleeding without apparent changes in the disposition of either drug or changes in the prothrombin time. Bleeding has also been reported with fluoxetine and warfarin, while citalopram and sertraline have been reported to prolong the prothrombin time of patients taking warfarin by about 5% to 8%.

MANAGEMENT: Caution is advised if SRIs or clomipramine are used in combination with other drugs that affect hemostasis. Close clinical and laboratory observation for hematologic complications is recommended. Patients should be advised to promptly report any signs of bleeding to their physician, including pain, swelling, headache, dizziness, weakness, prolonged bleeding from cuts, increased menstrual flow, vaginal bleeding, nosebleeds, bleeding of gums from brushing, unusual bleeding or bruising, red or brown urine, or red or black stools.

Eplerenone

MONITOR: The concomitant administration of agents with hypotensive effects and psychotherapeutic agents (e.g., anxiolytics, sedatives, hypnotics, antidepressants, antipsychotics), narcotic analgesics, alcohol, or muscle relaxants may additively increase hypotensive and/or central nervous system depressant effects.

MANAGEMENT: During concomitant use of these drugs, patients should be monitored for hypotension and excessive or prolonged CNS depression. Ambulatory patients should be made aware of the possibility of additive effects (e.g., drowsiness, dizziness, lightheadedness, confusion, orthostasis, fainting) and be cautioned about driving, operating machinery, or performing other hazardous tasks, and to arise slowly from a sitting or lying position. Patients should also be advised to notify their doctor if they experience excessive side effects that interfere with their normal activities, or dizziness and fainting.

Insulin glulisine, Insulin detemir, Insulin inhalation

MONITOR: The hypoglycemic effect of insulin may be potentiated by certain drugs, including ACE inhibitors, anabolic steroids, fibrates, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), salicylates, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), sulfonamides, disopyramide, propoxyphene, quinine, and quinidine. These drugs may increase the risk of hypoglycemia by enhancing insulin sensitivity (ACE inhibitors, fibrates); stimulating insulin secretion (salicylates, disopyramide, quinine, quinidine, MAOIs); increasing peripheral glucose utilization (SSRIs, insulin-like growth factor); and/or inhibiting gluconeogenesis (SSRIs, MAOIs, insulin-like growth factor). Clinical hypoglycemia has been reported during use of these agents alone or with insulin and/or insulin secretagogues.

MANAGEMENT: Close monitoring for the development of hypoglycemia is recommended if these drugs are coadministered with insulin, particularly in patients with advanced age and/or renal impairment. The insulin dosage may require adjustment if an interaction is suspected. Patients should be apprised of the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia (e.g., headache, dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, hunger, tremor, weakness, sweating, palpitations), how to treat it, and to contact their physician if it occurs. Patients should be observed for loss of glycemic control when these drugs are withdrawn.

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